1. Indicator name
D.1 International public funding,
including official development assistance (ODA) for
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
3. Goals and Targets addressed
Goal D Adequate means of implementation, including financial resources,
capacity-building, technical and scientific cooperation, and access to and transfer of technology to fully
implement the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework are secured and equitably accessible to all Parties,
especially developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing
States, as well as countries with economies in transition, progressively closing the biodiversity finance gap of
$700 billion per year, and aligning financial flows with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and
the 2050 Vision for biodiversity.
Target 19 Substantially and progressively increase the level of financial resources
from all sources, in an effective, timely and easily
accessible manner, including domestic, international, public and private resources, in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention, to implement
national biodiversity strategies and action plans, mobilizing at least $200 billion per year by 2030, including by:
- Increasing total
biodiversity related international financial resources from developed countries, including official development
assistance, and from countries that voluntarily assume obligations of developed
country Parties, to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island
developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, to at least $20 billion per year by 2025,
and to at least $30 billion per year by 2030;
- Significantly increasing
domestic resource mobilization, facilitated by the
preparation and implementation of national biodiversity finance plans or similar instruments according to national
needs, priorities and circumstances;
- Leveraging private
finance, promoting blended finance, implementing strategies for raising new and additional resources, and encouraging the private sector to
invest in biodiversity, including through impact funds and other instruments;
- Stimulating innovative
schemes such as payment for ecosystem services, green bonds, biodiversity offsets and credits, and
benefit-sharing mechanisms, with environmental and social safeguards;
- Optimizing co-benefits and
synergies of finance targeting the biodiversity and climate crises;
- Enhancing the role of
collective actions, including by indigenous peoples and local communities, Mother Earth centric actions13 and
non-market-based approaches including community based natural resource management and civil society cooperation
and solidarity aimed at the conservation of biodiversity;
- Enhancing the
effectiveness, efficiency and transparency of resource provision and use.
Total ODA flows to developing
countries quantify the public effort that donors provide to developing countries for biodiversity, fostering
transparency across the development co-operation landscape. In addition, ODA flows allow to hold donor efforts
against their commitments on biodiversity, thus fostering accountability, as well as promoting co-ordination across
donors and a more efficient development co-operation landscape.
5. Definitions, concepts and classifications
The indicator measures the gross disbursements of total Official Development Assistance (ODA) from
all donors for biodiversity. Data is also available in constant prices for commitments undertaken by donors, which
signal a signed agreement to fund a particular
The data includes information on capacity development type of activities (e.g. technical assistance,
5b. Method of computation
This indicator is calculated as
the sum of all ODA flows from 31 DAC donors to
developing countries that have biodiversity as a principal or significant objective, thus
marked with the Rio marker for biodiversity. Two
biodiversity-specific activity codes (biodiversity and biosphere protection) have the Rio marker assigned by
information may be available through activities reported to Sustainable
Development Goals (SDG) 14 (marine biodiversity) and 15 (terrestrial biodiversity, as well as through project-level descriptions, where a keyword search can
5c. Data collection method
Via annual reporting tables
that national statistical reporters in aid agencies, ministries of foreign affairs, etc. send to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) to be part of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Creditor
Reporting System database. Reporting on Rio markers for Official
Development Assistance is mandatory.
5d. Accessibility of methodology
The Methodology on the Rio
Marker for biodiversity is available here:https://one.oecd.org/document/DCD/DAC/STAT(2023)9/...
Further information on the
CRS itself is available here: https://one.oecd.org/document/DCD/DAC/STAT(2020)44...
5e. Data sources
The OECD/DAC has been
collecting data on official and private resource flows from 1960 at an aggregate level and 1973 at an activity
level through the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) (CRS data
are considered complete from 1995 for commitments at an activity level and 2002 for disbursements). The Rio marker
for biodiversity was introduced in 2002 and tracking against the SDGs was introduced in 2018. The data are provided by DAC donors, other bilateral providers of
development cooperation and several multilateral organisations.
The CRS also includes
e.g. Other Official Flows from bilateral donors, private flows from philanthropic institutions providing development finance for biodiversity, and also private finance flows
mobilised through public interventions (e.g. through the use of guarantees or other
forms of finance, including blended finance).
5f. Availability and release calendar
Availability: a) The Rio marker on biodiversity was introduced in 2002 and data are available since then for
most DAC members, as well as selected non-DAC members, with improvements in reporting over time. Not all other
providers report their data at an activity level though.
classification: Tier I
Release Calendar: On an annual basis.
5g. Time series
The CRS data are
available since 1996 on an annual basis, with time series since 1950. The Rio marker on biodiversity is
available since 2002
5h. Data providers
A statistical reporter
is responsible for the collection of DAC statistics in
each providing country/agency/institution. This
reporter is usually located in the national aid agency, Ministry
of Foreign Affairs or Finance etc.
The OECD Secretariat, in
consultation with countries, validates the CRS data
before they are published online.
5i. Data compilers
OECD Development Co-operation
5j. Gaps in data coverage
A few multilateral organisations report to the OECD using the
biodiversity Rio marker. On-going work is taking place on increasing the coverage of the data beyond
ODA from DAC members, as well as to increase data coverage from
multilateral organisations and non-DAC bilateral donors (including South-South co-operation providers).
5k. Treatment of missing values
At country level: No attempt is
made to estimate missing values.
6a. Scale of use
application: Global, Regional,
Scale of data
Global/ regional scale indicator can be disaggregated to national level:
National data is
collated to form global indicator: Yes
6b. National/regional indicator production
The DAC statistical Reporting
Directives govern the reporting of DAC statistics, and are reviewed and agreed by the DAC Working Party of
Development Finance Statistics, see: https://one.oecd.org/document/DCD/DAC/STAT(2020)44...
6c. Sources of differences between global and national figures
DAC statistics are
standardised on a calendar year basis for all donors and may differ from fiscal year
data available in budget documents for some countries. Some countries provide more comprehensive information than others.
6d. Regional and global estimates & data collection for global monitoring
6d.1 Description of the methodology
Data are reported at a
6d.2 Additional methodological details
6d.3 Description of the mechanism for collecting data from countries
Via and annual questionnaire
reported by national statistical reporters in aid agencies, ministries of foreign affairs, etc.
7. Other MEAs, processes and organisations
7a. Other MEA and processes
7b. Biodiversity Indicator Partnership
This indicator can be
disaggregated by donor, by recipient country (or region), by income group, by type of finance, by type of aid, by
sub-sector, by policy marker (e.g. gender), by channel
of delivery, etc.
10. Data reporter
OECD (2023), A decade of
development finance for biodiversity , 2011-2020,https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/development/a-decade...
OECD (2018), Review of the
definition and eligibility criteria for the Rio Marker for Biodiversity, https://one.oecd.org/document/DCD/DAC/STAT(2018)25...
Biodiversity-related Official Development Assistance 2016, https://www.slideshare.net/OECDdev/biodiversityrel...