Metadata Factsheet

1. Indicator name

D.1 International public funding, including official development assistance (ODA) for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems

2. Date of metadata update

2023-06-09 12:00:00 UTC

3. Goals and Targets addressed

3a. Goal

Goal D Adequate means of implementation, including financial resources, capacity-building, technical and scientific cooperation, and access to and transfer of technology to fully implement the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework are secured and equitably accessible to all Parties, especially developing country Parties, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, progressively closing the biodiversity finance gap of $700 billion per year, and aligning financial flows with the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework and the 2050 Vision for biodiversity.

3b. Target

Target 19 Substantially and progressively increase the level of financial resources from all sources, in an effective, timely and easily accessible manner, including domestic, international, public and private resources, in accordance with Article 20 of the Convention, to implement national biodiversity strategies and action plans, mobilizing at least $200 billion per year by 2030, including by:

  1. Increasing total biodiversity related international financial resources from developed countries, including official development assistance, and from countries that voluntarily assume obligations of developed country Parties, to developing countries, in particular the least developed countries and small island developing States, as well as countries with economies in transition, to at least $20 billion per year by 2025, and to at least $30 billion per year by 2030;
  1. Significantly increasing domestic resource mobilization, facilitated by the preparation and implementation of national biodiversity finance plans or similar instruments according to national needs, priorities and circumstances;
  1. Leveraging private finance, promoting blended finance, implementing strategies for raising new and additional resources, and encouraging the private sector to invest in biodiversity, including through impact funds and other instruments;
  1. Stimulating innovative schemes such as payment for ecosystem services, green bonds, biodiversity offsets and credits, and benefit-sharing mechanisms, with environmental and social safeguards;
  1. Optimizing co-benefits and synergies of finance targeting the biodiversity and climate crises;
  1. Enhancing the role of collective actions, including by indigenous peoples and local communities, Mother Earth centric actions13 and non-market-based approaches including community based natural resource management and civil society cooperation and solidarity aimed at the conservation of biodiversity;
  1. Enhancing the effectiveness, efficiency and transparency of resource provision and use.

4. Rationale

Total ODA flows to developing countries quantify the public effort that donors provide to developing countries for biodiversity, fostering transparency across the development co-operation landscape. In addition, ODA flows allow to hold donor efforts against their commitments on biodiversity, thus fostering accountability, as well as promoting co-ordination across donors and a more efficient development co-operation landscape.

5. Definitions, concepts and classifications

5a. Definition

The indicator measures the gross disbursements of total Official Development Assistance (ODA) from all donors for biodiversity. Data is also available in constant prices for commitments undertaken by donors, which signal a signed agreement to fund a particular activity. The data includes information on capacity development type of activities (e.g. technical assistance, scholarships, etc).

5b. Method of computation

This indicator is calculated as the sum of all ODA flows from 31 DAC donors to developing countries that have biodiversity as a principal or significant objective, thus marked with the Rio marker for biodiversity. Two biodiversity-specific activity codes (biodiversity and biosphere protection) have the Rio marker assigned by default.

Additional ODA information may be available through activities reported to Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 14 (marine biodiversity) and 15 (terrestrial biodiversity, as well as through project-level descriptions, where a keyword search can be performed.

5c. Data collection method

Via annual reporting tables that national statistical reporters in aid agencies, ministries of foreign affairs, etc. send to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to be part of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Creditor Reporting System database. Reporting on Rio markers for Official Development Assistance is mandatory.

5d. Accessibility of methodology

The Methodology on the Rio Marker for biodiversity is available here: (Annex 20)

Further information on the CRS itself is available here:

5e. Data sources

The OECD/DAC has been collecting data on official and private resource flows from 1960 at an aggregate level and 1973 at an activity level through the Creditor Reporting System (CRS) (CRS data are considered complete from 1995 for commitments at an activity level and 2002 for disbursements). The Rio marker for biodiversity was introduced in 2002 and tracking against the SDGs was introduced in 2018. The data are provided by DAC donors, other bilateral providers of development cooperation and several multilateral organisations.

The CRS also includes non-ODA information, e.g. Other Official Flows from bilateral donors, private flows from philanthropic institutions providing development finance for biodiversity, and also private finance flows mobilised through public interventions (e.g. through the use of guarantees or other forms of finance, including blended finance).

5f. Availability and release calendar

Availability: a) The Rio marker on biodiversity was introduced in 2002 and data are available since then for most DAC members, as well as selected non-DAC members, with improvements in reporting over time. Not all other providers report their data at an activity level though.

Provisional data classification: Tier I

Release Calendar: On an annual basis.

5g. Time series

The CRS data are available since 1996 on an annual basis, with time series since 1950. The Rio marker on biodiversity is available since 2002

5h. Data providers

A statistical reporter is responsible for the collection of DAC statistics in each providing country/agency/institution. This reporter is usually located in the national aid agency, Ministry of Foreign Affairs or Finance etc.

The OECD Secretariat, in consultation with countries, validates the CRS data before they are published online.

5i. Data compilers

OECD Development Co-operation Directorate.

5j. Gaps in data coverage

A few multilateral organisations report to the OECD using the biodiversity Rio marker. On-going work is taking place on increasing the coverage of the data beyond ODA from DAC members, as well as to increase data coverage from multilateral organisations and non-DAC bilateral donors (including South-South co-operation providers).

5k. Treatment of missing values

At country level: No attempt is made to estimate missing values.

6. Scale

6a. Scale of use

Scale of application: Global, Regional, National

Scale of data disaggregation/aggregation:

Global/ regional scale indicator can be disaggregated to national level: Yes

National data is collated to form global indicator: Yes

Additional information

6b. National/regional indicator production

The DAC statistical Reporting Directives govern the reporting of DAC statistics, and are reviewed and agreed by the DAC Working Party of Development Finance Statistics, see: (Annex 20)

6c. Sources of differences between global and national figures

DAC statistics are standardised on a calendar year basis for all donors and may differ from fiscal year data available in budget documents for some countries. Some countries provide more comprehensive information than others.

6d. Regional and global estimates & data collection for global monitoring

6d.1 Description of the methodology

Data are reported at a country level.

6d.2 Additional methodological details


6d.3 Description of the mechanism for collecting data from countries

Via and annual questionnaire reported by national statistical reporters in aid agencies, ministries of foreign affairs, etc.

7. Other MEAs, processes and organisations

7a. Other MEA and processes

Sustainable Development Goal 15.

7b. Biodiversity Indicator Partnership


8. Disaggregation

This indicator can be disaggregated by donor, by recipient country (or region), by income group, by type of finance, by type of aid, by sub-sector, by policy marker (e.g. gender), by channel of delivery, etc.

9. Related goals, targets and indicators


10. Data reporter

10a. Organisation


11. References

OECD (2023), A decade of development finance for biodiversity , 2011-2020,

OECD (2018), Review of the definition and eligibility criteria for the Rio Marker for Biodiversity,

OECD (2018), Biodiversity-related Official Development Assistance 2016,

12. Graphs and diagrams

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